Tuesday, January 23, 2018

[Herpetology • 2018] Amended Diagnosis and Redescription of Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900) (Amphibia: Craugastoridae), with A Description of Its Advertisement Call and Notes on Its Breeding Ecology and Phylogenetic Relationships


Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900)

in Kok, Dezfoulian, Means, Fouquet & Barrio-Amorós, 2018. 
    DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2018.397 

Abstract

The frog Pristimantis marmoratus was originally described as Hylodes marmoratus by George A. Boulenger in 1900 based on a single specimen reported to have been collected at the foot of Mount Roraima in Guyana in 1898. We herein discuss the exact location of the type locality of P. marmoratus and provide a redescription of the species based on new material from Kaieteur National Park and from the slopes of Maringma-tepui in Guyana. We also describe the previously unknown vocalization and breeding ecology of the species, and conducted an exploratory molecular analysis of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Pristimantis represented by the members of the “unistrigatus species group” in the Guiana Shield. Pristimantis marmoratus is a small-sized species mainly distinguished from its known Guiana Shield congeners by the combination of F I < II, SVL ≤ 20.4 in males, presence of vocal slits in males, granular/pustulate dorsal skin with well-developed scapular ridges, basal webbing between fingers, fringes on fingers and toes, crossed iris, diffuse yellow or pale green wash on groin, and absence of flashy colour on axillary/pre-axillary region. The advertisement call consists of a single note repeated at a rate of ca 11 calls/min with a dominant frequency ranging from 2756 to 3101 Hz. Pristimantis marmoratus is primarily arboreal, exclusively active at dusk, and probably restricted to the pristine rainforests of the Pantepui uplands and highlands, east of the Gran Sabana between ca 600 and 1800 m above sea level. Preliminary molecular analyses recovered Pristimantis marmoratus as sister to an unnamed species from the Eastern Guiana Shield. On grounds of the newly established distributional extent we suggest maintaining the IUCN conservation status as Least Concern.

Keywords: Anura; Guiana Shield; Pantepui; systematics; Terrarana



Superfamily Brachycephaloidea Günther, 1858
Family Craugastoridae Hedges, Duellman & Heinicke, 2008
Genus Pristimantis Jiménez de la Espada, 1870
Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900)

....

Fig. 4. Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900) (four individuals at the top) and P. pulvinatus (Rivero, 1968) (two individuals below). Intraspecific variation in dorsal colour pattern and sexual dimorphism in living specimens. Note: the subtle hint of green visible on the lower body and legs of some specimens of P. marmoratus is due to a reflection of the substrate (green leaf).
Photographs by Philippe J.R. Kok, except the uncollected P. pulvinatus, which is by César L. Barrio-Amorós. 

Fig. 6. A. Guzmania cf. sphaeroidea (André) André ex Mez, an arboreal bromeliad species used as egg deposition site by Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900) in the Wokomung Massif. B. Egg clutch of Pristimantis marmoratus deposited on a leaf of the arboreal bromeliad Guzmania cf. sphaeroidea in the Wokomung Massif. C. Egg clutch of Anomaloglossus beebei (Noble, 1923) (white arrow) deposited in the phytotelmata of the same plant as in B. D. Dorsolateral view of IRSNB 17916, 11.3 mm SVL, a juvenile of P. marmoratus collected on the slopes of Maringma-tepui, Guyana.
Photographs A–C by D. Bruce Means, D by Philippe J.R. Kok. 

Natural history: 
All specimens were found in undisturbed submontane or montane rainforest (Fig. 9), active on small trees 50–300 cm above the ground, exclusively at dusk. Pristimantis marmoratus is not a common species; only a few specimens have been found at each locality of occurrence. Males were found calling (in June and November) upside down from mossy tree trunks of low diameter (< 10 cm) between 120 and 300 cm above the ground, except one male (IRSNB 14473), which was calling from the top of a green leaf 50 cm above the ground. The “upside down” call posture is also found in the closely related P. sp. 1 of Fouquet et al. (2013) (as recovered in our preliminary molecular phylogenetic analysis, see below), and in P. espedeus and P. inguinalis. 
In June 2012, which corresponds to the rainy season in the area, a cluster of four Pristimantis marmoratus eggs (Fig. 6B) was found by one of us (DBM) attached to the inside part of a leaf of a bromeliad, Guzmania cf. sphaeroidea (André) André ex Mez (Fig. 6A), 150 cm above the ground, on Mount Kopinang, Wokomung Massif, near the top of Kamana Falls at about 1600 m elevation (04°59′58″ N, 59°52′49″ W). Molecular analyses confirmed conspecificity of these eggs with P. marmoratus (Appendix 3). The large, white eggs did not have visibly developed embryos. After photographing and preserving the eggs, the small plant was investigated for inhabitants of the aquatic portion of the phytotelmata. Immediately a small frog jumped out and disappeared into the deep ground litter, and eggs and tadpoles of Anomaloglossus beebei (Noble, 1923) were found in the water of the phytotelmata of the same small bromeliad and in the water of five other bromeliads nearby (egg/frog identifications confirmed by molecular analyses). Pristimantis marmoratus and Anomaloglossus beebei thus share the same bromeliad as an oviposition site on the Wokomung Massif (Fig. 6C). Other Pristimantis species found in syntopy with P. marmoratus were P. dendrobatoides (above 1600 m elevation), P. jester (above 1300 m elevation), P. saltissimus (above 1000 m elevation), and P. pulvinatus (above 1000 m elevation).


Philippe J.R. Kok, Raheleh Dezfoulian, D. Bruce Means, Antoine Fouquet and César L. Barrio-Amorós. 2018. Amended Diagnosis and Redescription of Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900) (Amphibia: Craugastoridae), with A Description of Its Advertisement Call and Notes on Its Breeding Ecology and Phylogenetic Relationships. European Journal of Taxonomy. 397; 1–30.   DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2018.397


[Botany • 2018] Taxonomic Revision of Pachyptera (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae)


(B) Pachyptera aromatica,  (I) Pincarnata
(F) Perythraea (N)  Pkerere 

in Francisco & Lohmann, 2018. 

Abstract
Pachyptera DC. is a small genus of neotropical lianas included in tribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae). The genus has a complicated taxonomic history but currently includes species distributed from Belize to Southern Amazon. Pachyptera is characterised by four main synapomorphies, namely, a papery peeling bark, prophylls of the axillary buds organised in a series of three, patelliform glands arranged in lines in the upper portions of the calyx and corolla tube. Furthermore, members of the genus also have stems with four phloem wedges in cross-section and conspicuous extrafloral nectaries between the interpetiolar region and at the petiole apex, although these characters are also shared with other genera of tribe Bignonieae. Here, we present a taxonomic revision of Pachyptera, which includes a complete list of synonyms, detailed morphological descriptions of species and an identification key, as well as information on the habitat, distribution and phenology, nomenclatural notes, taxonomic comments and illustrations of all the species. In addition, we designate three lectotypes, propose one new combination, raise one variety to species status and describe a new species. After these adjustments, a Pachyptera with five well-defined species is recognised.

Keywords: Amazon, Flora, Pachyptera kerere, Neotropics, Taxonomy


Figure 1. Schematic diagram summarising phylogenetic relationships within Pachyptera, with morphological characters mapped on the diagram.
Names of the terminal taxa indicate the taxon in which these species were previously included. The taxonomic updates proposed here are also indicated. Relationships depicted follow Francisco and Lohmann (submitted).

Figure 2. Sample of morphological features of Pachyptera.
A–D Pachyptera aromatica: A Inflorescence B Frontal view of flowers C Detail of inflorescence and flowers, showing calyx partition D Interpetiolar region of stem with extra floral nectaries (EFNs) and prophylls of the axillary buds 3-seriated, triangular and minute
E–F Perythraea: E Inflorescence F Frontal view of flowers
G–L Pincarnata: G Stem with tendril surrounding a tree H Interpetiolar region of stem with EFNs and prophylls of the axillary buds flattened, ensiform and seriated I Inflorescence J Frontal view of flower K Pink patelliform glands on flower lobes L Detail of calyx
M–Q Pkerere: M Stem cross-section with four phloem wedges N Inflorescence O Frontal view of flower P White patelliform glands on flower lobes Q Detail of calyx.


Jessica Nayara Carvalho Francisco and Lúcia G. Lohmann. 2018. Taxonomic Revision of Pachyptera (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae). PhytoKeys. 92: 89-131.  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.92.20987

[Botany • 2017] Carex socotrana • A New Endemic Species (Cyperaceae) from Socotra Island


 Carex socotrana  Rěpka & Maděra

in Řepka, Maděra, Čermák & Forrest, 2017.  
 @CMEPorg  ||  DOI: 10.3417/D-16-00004   

ABSTRACT
We describe Carex socotrana Rěpka & Maděra, a new endemic species found in the Hajhir Mountains on Socotra Island. It differs from the morphologically similar African continental species C. steudneri Boeckeler in having a shorter stem, smaller leaf length and width, completely smooth leaf blades and margins, and pistillate scales without a whitish membranous margin and with distinctive awns at the apex. The spike clusters are smaller and more scattered on the stem, and the perigynium and its beak are smaller than in C. steudneri. So far only one small and one large population have been found near the highest mountain peak, Mount Scand. The new taxon is 1370 km from the closest known site of C. steudneri.

Keywords: Carex, Cyperaceae, IUCN, Socotra



Radomír Řepka, Petr Maděra, Martin Čermák and Alan Forrest. 2017. Carex socotrana, A New Endemic Species from Socotra Island. Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature25(4); 467–472.  DOI: 10.3417/D-16-00004 


[Herpetology • 2018] Sitana attenboroughii • A New Species of Fan-throated Lizard of the Genus Sitana Cuvier, 1829 from coastal Kerala, southern India


 Sitana attenboroughii 
Sadasivan, Ramesh, Palot, Ambekar & Mirza, 2018


Abstract

We here describe Sitana attenboroughii sp. nov.a new species of fan-throated lizard of the genus Sitana Cuvier, 1829 from coastal Kerala in southern India. The new species morphologically is closer to Sitana visiri Deepak, 2016 (in Deepak et al. 2016a), however, differs in having higher numbers of ventral scales and a comparatively short but richly colored dewlap. Genetically the new species shows affinity to Sitana marudhamneydhal Deepak, Khandekar, Varma & Chaitanya, 2016 from which it differs in an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of 2.2% for a fragment of mitochondrial Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH) subunit 2 gene.

Keywords: Reptilia, taxonomy, India, molecular phylogeny, mitochondrial DNA, Kerala

 Sitana attenboroughii sp. nov. in life, holotype male (BNHS 2481)

 Kalesh Sadasivan, M. B. Ramesh, Muhamed Jafer Palot, Mayuresh Ambekar and Zeeshan A. Mirza. 2018. A New Species of Fan-throated Lizard of the Genus Sitana Cuvier, 1829 from coastal Kerala, southern India. Zootaxa. 4374(4); 545–564. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4374.4.5

[Botany • 2018] A Taxonomic Monograph of the Fern Genus Ctenitis (Dryopteridaceae) in South America


Ctenitis submarginalis  (Langsd. & Fisch.) Ching

in Viveros, Rouhan & Salino, 2018. 

Abstract  
Based on collections of 45 Herbaria in addition to newly collected specimens and some field observations, a taxonomic treatment for South American Ctenitis is provided, a hundred years after Christensen’s monographs. Guided by morphological species concept, 26 taxa are recognized (23 species and three varieties). A key including all taxa is provided, and all species are fully morphologically described, with information on distribution and habitat. Brazil is the richest country with 22 taxa, of which 13 are endemic, restricted mainly to Atlantic Forest. Taxa occurring in the other South American countries are also widely distributed in Mesoamerica and West Indies, except C. megalastriformis, only known from Peru, and C. refulgens var. peruviana, recorded in Peru and Bolivia. We dealt with 163 names that apply to the South American species. In addition, we propose three new combinations, and designate 38 lectotypes and three neotypes.

Keywords: Atlantic Forest, Brazil, ferns, Neotropics, taxonomy, typification, Pteridophytes




Raquel Stauffer Viveros, Germinal Rouhan and Alexandre Salino. 2018. A Taxonomic Monograph of the Fern Genus Ctenitis (Dryopteridaceae) in South America. Phytotaxa.  335(1); 1–83. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.385.1.1

[Entomology • 2018] Saccharicoccus chinensis • A Review of the Genus Saccharicoccus Ferris, 1950 (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) in China, with Description of A New Species


Saccharicoccus chinensis
Zhang, Wu & Wu, 2018


Abstract 

The mealybug genus Saccharicoccus Ferris includes three species: S. isfarensis (Borchsenius, 1949), S. sacchari (Cockerell, 1895) and a new speciesS. chinensis Zhang, Wu & Wu sp. n. The new species, collected on Miscanthus sp. (Poaceae) and other poaceous weeds in China, is described and illustrated, and molecular analyses based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) are provided. Additional data on the distribution and host-plants of each species are given, and a key to the adult females of Saccharicoccus species is provided.

Keywords: Hemiptera, mealybugs, minute pores, COI, distribution, host-plants




Jiang-Tao Zhang, Bo-Wen Wu and San-An Wu. 2018. A Review of the Genus Saccharicoccus Ferris, 1950 (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) in China, with Description of A New Species.   Zootaxa. 4375(1); 127–135.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4375.1.7

[Crustacea • 2018] Takedactylus compressus & Lichtylus kaisha • Two New Species of Aphanodactylidae (Decapoda: Brachyura) from the Ryukyu and Ogasawara Islands, Japan, with the Establishment of A New Genus


Takedactylus compressus
Naruse & Yoshida, 2018

  DOI:  10.1080/03946975.2017.1395163  ocha.ac.jp 

Abstract
A new species of Takedactylus Naruse & Maenosono, 2012, and a new genus and species of Aphanodactylidae are described from Japan. Takedactylus compressus n. sp. is collected from Ogasawara Islands. This new species is distinct from the only congener, Takedactylus masatsunei, by the shapes of the carapace, third maxilliped and the ambulatory legs. Another new species, monotypic Lichtylus kaisha n. gen., n. sp., is distinct from all other aphanodactylid species, in generic level, in the shape and position of the palp of third maxilliped, relatively long and slender ambulatory legs, and a combination of other important characters, i.e. the contour of the carapace, the degree of gap between third maxillipeds, condition of the distoflexor corners of second to fifth ambulatory propodi, and relative length of ambulatory dactyli. The present study brings the number of aphanodactylid taxa to 7 genera and 15 species.

Keywords: Taxonomy, new genus, new species, Brachyura, crab, Aphanodactylidae, Japan




Tohru Naruse and Ryuta Yoshida. 2018. Two New Species of Aphanodactylidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from the Ryukyu and Ogasawara Islands, Japan, with the Establishment of A New Genus.  Tropical Zoology.  DOI:  10.1080/03946975.2017.1395163
ゴカイと暮らす“ぺったんこ”なカニの新種を発見! | お茶の水女子大学  ocha.ac.jp/news/20180116_01.html

Monday, January 22, 2018

[Botany • 2017] Aloe belitsakensis • A New Species (Asphodelaceae) from north-western Madagascar


 Aloe belitsakensis
in Rakotoarisoa & Grace, 2017

Madagascar is a major centre of diversity for the leaf-succulent genus Aloe Linnaeus (1753: 319) accounting for roughly a third of Aloe species (Carter et al. 2011). Approximately 128 species and 161 taxa are known from the region and all are restricted to Madagascar (Rakotoarisoa et al. 2014) and/or the nearby Mascarene archipelago. New taxa are described from these islands at a rate that rivals the ongoing discovery of aloes elsewhere in their natural range, on the African continent or Arabian Peninsula (Crouch et al. 2013). Extinction risks are alarmingly high among species of Aloe in this region. Conservatively, 39% of species are known to be threatened, and this figure is likely to be significantly higher (Rakotoarisoa et al. 2014), since several species have not been observed or collected for many decades. The Kew Madagascar Conservation Centre (KMCC) aims to record and collect the rare and threatened flora of Madagascar to ensure its conservation, and the genus Aloe is a priority for the dryland programme.

Keywords: Aloe, new species, Xanthorrhoeaceae, Madagascar, Monocots




Solofo E. Rakotoarisoa and Olwen M. Grace. 2017. Aloe belitsakensis (Asphodelaceae): A New Species from north-western Madagascar. Phytotaxa. 328(3); 276–282. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.328.3.6


[Arachnida • 2018] The Cave-dwelling False Scorpion Genus Pseudoblothrus Beier, 1931 (Pseudoscorpiones: Syarinidae) in the Crimean Peninsula


Pseudoblothrus roszkovskii  (Redikorzev, 1918)

in Kolesnikov & Turbanov, 2018.

Abstract 

Based on morphological and molecular studies of material from caves in three karst regions of Crimea, the small, apparently relictual, Euro-Mediterranean and Macaronesian false scorpion genus Pseudoblothrus Beier, 1931 is shown to contain only one troglobiont species there, P. roszkovskii (Redikorzev, 1918), of which P. ljovuschkini Krumpál, 1984 and Obisium tauricum Lebedev, 1927 are junior subjective synonyms. A detailed redescription of the adults and tritonymph of P. roszkovskii is provided, together with phylogenetic and zoogeographical analyses.

Keywords: Pseudoscorpiones, variation, taxonomy, phylogeny




Vasiliy Kolesnikov and Ilya Turbanov. 2018. The Cave-dwelling False Scorpion Genus Pseudoblothrus Beier, 1931 (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones: Syarinidae) in the Crimean Peninsula. Zootaxa. 4374(4); 524–544. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4374.4.4


[Botany • 2017] Impatiens nilalohitae • A New Species (Balsaminaceae) from Northeastern India


Impatiens nilalohitae  Hareesh & M.Sabu

in Hareesh & Sabu. 2017.  
  
Abstract

Impatiens nilalohitae is described from Arunachal Pradesh, Northeastern India. The new species shows similarities with I. adamowskiana and I. rugosipetala, but differs by having a 10–15-flowered inflorescence, dark purple flowers, and four lateral sepals, among other characters. A detailed description and colour photographs, as well as remarks on geographic distribution and ecology, are provided.

Keywords: Arunachal Pradesh, Balsaminaceae, Impatiens, new species, Monocots


Impatiens nilalohitae Hareesh & M.Sabu sp. nov.



Impatiens nilalohitae Hareesh & M.Sabu sp. nov. 

Impatiens nilalohitae is phenotypically similar to I. adamowskiana but differs by having a non-winged stem, setaceous stipular gland, 10– 15-flowered inflorescence, dark purple flower, four lateral sepals, and spur with a notched apex. It is also similar to I. rugosipetala but differs by having 10–15-flowered inflorescence, dark purple flower with non-rugose petals, four lateral sepals, lower sepal with an acute apex, and a spur with a notched apex.

Etymology—The specific epithet refers to the purple colour (nilalohita in Sanskrit) of the flower and the abaxial leaf blade surface.


Vadakkoot Sankaran Hareesh and Mamiyil Sabu. 2017. Impatiens nilalohitae (Balsaminaceae): A New Species from Northeastern India. Phytotaxa. 323(2); 189–193.  DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.323.2.7

Sunday, January 21, 2018

[PaleoMammalogy • 2017] Gomphotherium tassyi • A New Species of Gomphotherium (Proboscidea, Mammalia) from China and the Evolution of Gomphotherium in Eurasia


Gomphotherium tassyi
 Wang, Li, Duangkrayom, Yang, He & Chen, 2017


ABSTRACT
Gomphotherium is a stem taxon of Elephantida that was widespread in Africa, Eurasia, and North America during the Miocene. However, the evolution of this genus is greatly debated because of morphological variation among the species of Gomphotherium. In the present work, we describe a cranium and accompanying material of Gomphotherium from the late middle Miocene Hujialiang Formation of Linxia Basin, China. The new material shows dental similarities to G. subtapiroideum from the middle Miocene of Europe; however, it displays some cranial, mandibular, and dental feature combinations that are distinct from the known species of Gomphotherium. Therefore, a new speciesGomphotherium tassyi, is established. We further study the phylogeny of Gomphotherium by cladistic analysis and recognize four groups. The most basal ‘G. annectens group’ is a paraphyletic group that includes G. annectens, G. cooperi, G. sylvaticum, and G. hannibali. The African taxa, G. libycum and G. pygmaeus, constitute a monophyletic group that has not been named. The ‘G. angustidens group’ is a monophyletic group that includes G. inopinatum, G. mongoliense, G. connexum, and G. angustidens. In addition, the ‘derived Gomphotherium group,’ which includes G. subtapiroideum, G. tassyi, G. wimani, G. browni, G. productum, and G. steinheimense, was widely distributed in Eurasia and North America during the middle and late Miocene.


 


Shi-Qi Wang, Yu Li, Jaroon Duangkrayom, Xiang-Wen Yang, Wen He and Shan-Qin Chen. 2017.  A New Species of Gomphotherium (Proboscidea, Mammalia) from China and the Evolution of Gomphotherium in Eurasia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 37(3); DOI:  10.1080/02724634.2017.1318284   

[Paleontology • 2018] A Revised Cranial Description of Massospondylus carinatus Owen (Dinosauria: Sauropodomorpha) based on Computed Tomographic Scans and A Review of Cranial Characters for Basal Sauropodomorpha


Massospondylus carinatus  Owen, 1854

in Chapelle & Choiniere, 2018
   DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4224 

Abstract

Massospondylus carinatus is a basal sauropodomorph dinosaur from the early Jurassic Elliot Formation of South Africa. It is one of the best-represented fossil dinosaur taxa, known from hundreds of specimens including at least 13 complete or nearly complete skulls. Surprisingly, the internal cranial anatomy of M. carinatus has never been described using computed tomography (CT) methods. Using CT scans and 3D digital representations, we digitally reconstruct the bones of the facial skeleton, braincase, and palate of a complete, undistorted cranium of M. carinatus (BP/1/5241). We describe the anatomical features of the cranial bones, and compare them to other closely related sauropodomorph taxa such as Plateosaurus erlenbergiensis, Lufengosaurus huenei, Sarahsaurus aurifontanalis and Efraasia minor. We identify a suite of character states of the skull and braincase for M. carinatus that sets it apart from other taxa, but these remain tentative due to the lack of comparative sauropodomorph braincase descriptions in the literature. Furthermore, we hypothesize 27 new cranial characters useful for determining relationships in non-sauropodan Sauropodomorpha, delete five pre-existing characters and revise the scores of several existing cranial characters to make more explicit homology statements. All the characters that we hypothesized or revised are illustrated. Using parsimony as an optimality criterion, we then test the relationships of M. carinatus (using BP/1/5241 as a specimen-level exemplar) in our revised phylogenetic data matrix.


Figure 1: Photographs of the skull of BP/1/5241. (A) Left lateral view. (B) Right lateral view. (C) Dorsal view.

Figure 2: Reconstructed skull of BP/1/5241.
(A) Left lateral view. (B) Right lateral view.

 aof, antorbital fenestra; aofs, antorbital fossa; bo, basioccipital; ecpt, ectopterygoid; eo, exoccipital; fr, frontal; itf, infratemporal fenestra; j, jugal; la, lacrimal; mx, maxilla; n, nasal; nf, narial fenestra; obt, orbit; pa, parietal; pf, prefrontal; pmx, premaxilla; po, postorbital; q, quadrate; qj, quadratojugal; sq, squamosal.

SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY
Dinosauria Owen, 1842
Saurischia Seeley, 1887
Sauropodomorpha Huene, 1932

Massospondylidae Huene, 1914 sensu Yates, 2003b

Massospondylus carinatus Owen, 1854

....

Conclusion: 
The use of CT scanning and 3D visualization graphics allows for a better understanding of the internal and external morphological structures of the braincase as well as information about the soft tissues such as the vestibular canals. M. carinatus can be tentatively diagnosed cranially by basipterygoid processes that are separated by an angle smaller than 60° and a jugal process of the ectopterygoid that is strongly curved. A revision of cranial characters provides a basis for more comparative work on the braincase of sauropodomorphs in general. Results also show a well-supported Massospondylidae clade. Further phylogenetic analyses using individual specimens of known ontogenetic stages as operational taxonomic units would provide better resolution for the Massospondylidae clade as well as a better understanding of which sets of character states set M. carinatus aside from other taxa.


Kimberley E.J. Chapelle and Jonah N. Choiniere. 2018. A Revised Cranial Description of Massospondylus carinatus Owen (Dinosauria: Sauropodomorpha) based on Computed Tomographic Scans and A Review of Cranial Characters for Basal Sauropodomorpha.   PeerJ. 6:e4224.  DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4224
CT-scan study makes it possible to 3-D print the skull of the dinosaur species Massospondylus http://phy.so/434970306 via @physorg_com